Gerardus Kelleger GERARDUS PRESS gewk1.com
Read this first before using: Web side of www.gewk1.com see Gerardus press for details.
 
 
Notifications URGENT information
to read first, urgent
 
 
Notificvation: Places to taste the excellence of food.
An addiction
 
 
32561 a view of God
The Western countries
 
 
32562 It's burning
The Negev....
 
 
32563 Anti-Semitism
The misuse
 
 
32564 The Karaites
Part 2
 
 
32565 Is Britian changing
Is it really?
 
 
32566 Part 3
The Karaites
 
 
32567 Britain
Slowly changing
 
 
32568 Sliding back?
The 30tier years
 
 
32569 Part 4
The Karaites
 
 
32570 non-Jews included
Anti-Semitism
 
 
32571 in the past.
Back to the future
 
 
32572 Part 5
The karaites
 
 
32573 Or hit him with the sword
Shall I beat him with a whip
 
 
32574 Follow the first reason
To follow the rest
 
 
32575 Confession
A brave outspoken
 
 
32576 walking to Christ
A small step
 
 
32577 The message
Christ
 
 
32578 The Corinthians
Morality
 
 
32579 The two Messiah's
David or Joseph
 
 
32580 By the grace of God
To be saved
 
 
32581 a naste web
we did weave
 
 
32582 Celebrating the birth of Christ
Midwinter holiday or....
 
 
32583 History
Following
 
 
32584 Climate change
The IPCC indication to
 
 
32585 Anti-Semitism
Common sense or......
 
 
32586 The first wave
Circassians
 
 
32587 chips of the first creation by man
Bible, Torah, Quran
 
 
32588 There is evil
In the darkness
 
 
32589 The US/UK want to rule the world.
O, what a nasty web we weave
 
 
32590 Ignored by Israel, US/UK.
Thou shall not kill
 
 
32591 A God's gift
Our free will
 
 
32592 from which angle you look at it
It is a creators story
 
 
32593 The old question
Will they see?
 
 
32594 It is the creators story
From which ever side you look
 
 
32595 An old question
Do we have an answer
 
 
32596 Lemuria
No: 3
 
 
32597 a balancing act
The Genesis story
 
 
32598 a believe or a confession
Faith
 
 
32599 and moraly corrupt, NATO
USA led
 
 
32600 Creating a beginning
Controlling people
 
 
32601 according to the bible
The bible
 
 
32602 against the words of Christ
For the love for Israel
 
 
32603 Genesis
Balancing the story
 
 
32604 Changing world
A look at a
 
 
32605 A small step in time
Christ
 
 
32606 web we weave in Belarus
What a terrible
 
 
32607 Indeed
A changing world
 
 
32608 in a changing world
Epifanie
 
 
32609 of Jesus.
For the love
 
 
32610 The scientists
The bible according to
 
 
32611 USA army extention
NATO the
 
 
32612 least among the leaders of Judah
You are by no means
 
 
32613 A BRAVE CONFESSION
Faith
 
 
32614 Free speech
We have a God given
 
 
32615 Into the light.
From the darkness
 
 
32616 Evolution
Creation or
 
 
32617 for Christ
All for the love
 
 
32618 or just a little bounce
Big Bang
 
 
32618 The return
Davids Message
 
 
32619 to be learned
A lessen
 
 
32620 The rule of Thump
Billions of death or,
 
 
32621 the wind blows
The lord
 
 
32622 suffering at the hand of God
All those who do not believe
 
 
32623 In the beginning
Homophobia
 
 
32624 Judiasm
The three branches
 
 
32625 re-told
An Old story
 
 
32626 A humanist
John Calvin
 
 
32627 and blamed on others.
Gods beginning. How to tell a story
 
 
32628 The foundation of
History
 
 
32629 Ulrich Zwingly
The history of
 
 
32630 The Messiah
Jesus
 
 
32631 What have we learne from
History
 
 
32632 non-belief
The atracted alternative
 
 
32633 a curious event
Viewing
 
 
32634 The real view.
Atheism,
 
 
32635 But are they?
Remember the laws of God
 
 
32636 God
We do acknowledge
 
 
32637 Adam the first man
The Hebrew creation
 
 
32638 Even as a humble Christian
U are needed.
 
 
32639 warning
A danger
 
 
32640 Only the smell of Greed, power and Control count.
For the West
 
 
32641 the prophets
Abraham
 
 
32642 an atrachted alternative
Believe,
 
 
32643 Jewish people
A invention
 
 
32644 AN INTELECTUAL DESIGNER
Was there really?
 
 
32645 in endless fear
Looking at it
 
 
32646 Ararat
A mountain to climb
 
 
32647 A reality?
A floating child
 
 
32648 Gods beginning
A new beginning
 
 
32649 a holy wonder
admiration
 
 
32650 your own windows
When you throw in,
 
 
32651 Atheists the religion
A clear view on,
 
 
32652 on a planet full of water
Not a drop to drink
 
 
32653 Christians
When Christians stand against
 
 
32654 John Calvin
A view at
 
 
32655 not answered
The questions
 
 
32656 WHEN WE DO NOT HEED
A WARNING
 
 
32657 on the warpath. no1
America
 
 
32658 war path. no2
America again on the
 
 
32659 of the Final words
The first
 
 
32660 Christianity
The basics of fear
 
 
32661 a gods creation
Abraham
 
 
32662 entslaving countries
A real American game
 
 
32663 or maybe in another million of years
The end is near
 
 
32664 the fears of Christianity
The final word
 
 
32665 Be good of cheers
A ship sailed
 
 
32666 a good spirit
Gods fear
 
 
32667 A good home
For a child
 
 
32668 The holy word
A close view
 
 
32669 Supernational
Viewing the
 
 
32670 religions
The Abrahamic
 
 
32671 the Abrahamic religions
Gay and
 
 
32672 Where they or.......
The fallen angels
 
 
32676 The UN abolished
Israel on the war path wants......
 
 

32631 What have we learne from

Historians do not perform heart transplants, improve highway design, or arrest criminals. In a society that quite correctly expects education to serve useful purposes, the functions of history can seem more difficult to define than those of engineering or medicine. History is in fact very useful, actually indispensable, but the products of historical study are less tangible, sometimes less immediate, than those that stem from some other disciplines.
In the past, history has been justified for reasons we would no longer accept. For instance, one of the reasons history holds its place in current education is because earlier leaders believed that knowledge of certain historical facts helped distinguish the educated from the uneducated. The person who could reel off the date of the Norman conquest of England (1066) or the name of the person who came up with the theory of evolution at about the same time that Darwin did was deemed superior—a better candidate for law school or even a business promotion.
Knowledge of historical facts has been used as a screening device in many societies, from China to the United States, and the habit is still with us to some extent. Unfortunately, this use can encourage mindless memorization—a real but not very appealing aspect of the discipline. History should be studied, because it is essential to individuals and to society, and because it harbours beauty. There are many ways to discuss the real functions of the subject—as there are many different historical talents and many different paths to historical meaning. All definitions of history's utility, however, rely on two fundamental facts.
In the first place, history offers a storehouse of information about how people and societies behave. Understanding the operations of people and societies is difficult, though a number of disciplines make the attempt. An exclusive reliance on current data would needlessly handicap our efforts. How can we evaluate war if the nation is at peace—unless we use historical materials? How can we understand genius, the influence of technological innovation, or the role that beliefs play in shaping family life, if we do not use what we know about experiences in the past? Some social scientists attempt to formulate laws or theories about human behaviour.
Nevertheless, even these recourses depend on historical information, except for in limited, often artificial cases in which experiments can be devised to determine how people act. Major aspects of a society's operation, like mass elections, missionary activities, or military alliances, cannot be set up as precise experiments. Consequently, history must serve, however imperfectly, as our laboratory, and data from the past must serve as our most vital evidence in the unavoidable quest to figure out why our complex species behaves as it does in societal settings. This, fundamentally, is why we cannot stay away from history: it offers the only extensive evidential base for the contemplation and analysis of how societies function, and people need to have some sense of how societies function simply to run their own lives.
The second reason history is inescapable as a subject of serious study follows closely on the first. The past causes the present, and so the future. Any time we try to know why something happened—whether a shift in political party dominance in the American Congress, a major change in the teenage suicide rate, or a war in the Balkans or the Middle East—we have to look for factors that took shape earlier. Sometimes fairly recent history will suffice to explain a major development, but often we need to look further back to identify the causes of change. Only through studying history can we grasp how things change; only through history can we begin to comprehend the factors that cause change; and only through history can we understand what elements of an institution or a society persist despite change.
These two fundamental reasons for studying history underlie more specific and quite diverse uses of history in our own lives. History well told is beautiful. Many of the historians who most appeal to the general reading public know the importance of dramatic and skilful writing—as well as of accuracy. Biography and military history appeal in part because of the tales they contain. History as art and entertainment serves a real purpose, on aesthetic grounds but also on the level of human understanding. Stories well done are stories that reveal how people and societies have actually functioned, and they prompt thoughts about the human experience in other times and places. The same aesthetic and humanistic goals inspire people to immerse themselves in efforts to reconstruct quite remote pasts, far removed from immediate, present-day utility. Exploring what historians sometimes call the "pastiness of the past"—the ways people in distant ages constructed their lives—involves a sense of beauty and excitement, and ultimately another perspective on human life and society.

History also provides a terrain for moral contemplation. Studying the stories of individuals and situations in the past allows a student of history to test his or her own moral sense, to hone it against some of the real complexities individuals have faced in difficult settings. People who have weathered adversity not just in some work of fiction, but in real, historical circumstances can provide inspiration. "History teaching by example" is one phrase that describes this use of a study of the past—a study not only of certifiable heroes, the great men and women of history who successfully worked through moral dilemmas, but also of more ordinary people who provide lessons in courage, diligence, or constructive protest.

History also helps provide identity, and this is unquestionably one of the reasons all modern nations encourage its teaching in some form. Historical data include evidence about how families, groups, institutions and whole countries were formed and about how they have evolved while retaining cohesion. For many Americans, studying the history of one's own family is the most obvious use of history, for it provides facts about genealogy and (at a slightly more complex level) a basis for understanding how the family has interacted with larger historical change.
Family identity is established and confirmed. Many institutions, businesses, communities, and social units, such as ethnic groups in the United States, use history for similar identity purposes. We merely defining the group in the present pales against the possibility of forming an identity based on a rich past. In addition, of course nations use identity history as well—and sometimes abuse it. Histories that tell the national story, emphasizing distinctive features of the national experience, are meant to drive home an understanding of national values and a commitment to national loyalty.
 

Text-only version of this page  |  Edit this page  |  Manage website  |  Website design: 2-minute-website.com