Gerardus Kelleger GERARDUS PRESS
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32586 The first wave
32587 chips of the first creation by man
Bible, Torah, Quran
32589 The US/UK want to rule the world.
O, what a nasty web we weave
32590 Ignored by Israel, US/UK.
Thou shall not kill
32592 from which angle you look at it
It is a creators story
32596 Lemuria
No: 3
32599 and moraly corrupt, NATO
USA led
32606 web we weave in Belarus
What a terrible
32608 in a changing world
32610 The scientists
The bible according to
32611 USA army extention
NATO the
32614 Free speech
We have a God given
32615 Into the light.
From the darkness
32616 Evolution
Creation or
32617 for Christ
All for the love
32618 or just a little bounce
Big Bang
32618 The return
Davids Message
32619 to be learned
A lessen
32620 The rule of Thump
Billions of death or,
32621 the wind blows
The lord
32622 suffering at the hand of God
All those who do not believe
32623 In the beginning
32624 Judiasm
The three branches
32625 re-told
An Old story
32626 A humanist
John Calvin
32627 and blamed on others.
Gods beginning. How to tell a story
32628 The foundation of
32629 Ulrich Zwingly
The history of
32630 The Messiah
32631 What have we learne from
32632 non-belief
The atracted alternative
32633 a curious event
32634 The real view.
32635 But are they?
Remember the laws of God
32636 God
We do acknowledge
32637 Adam the first man
The Hebrew creation
32638 Even as a humble Christian
U are needed.
32639 warning
A danger
32640 Only the smell of Greed, power and Control count.
For the West
32641 the prophets
32642 an atrachted alternative
32643 Jewish people
A invention
Was there really?
32645 in endless fear
Looking at it
32646 Ararat
A mountain to climb
32647 A reality?
A floating child
32648 Gods beginning
A new beginning
32649 a holy wonder
32650 your own windows
When you throw in,
32651 Atheists the religion
A clear view on,
32652 on a planet full of water
Not a drop to drink
32653 Christians
When Christians stand against
32654 John Calvin
A view at
32655 not answered
The questions
32657 on the warpath. no1
32658 war path. no2
America again on the
32659 of the Final words
The first
32660 Christianity
The basics of fear
32661 a gods creation
32662 entslaving countries
A real American game
32663 or maybe in another million of years
The end is near
32664 the fears of Christianity
The final word
32665 Be good of cheers
A ship sailed
32666 a good spirit
Gods fear
32667 A good home
For a child
32668 The holy word
A close view
32669 Supernational
Viewing the
32670 religions
The Abrahamic
32671 the Abrahamic religions
Gay and
32672 Where they or.......
The fallen angels
32676 The UN abolished
Israel on the war path wants......
32768 of torture
The pleasure

32631 What have we learne from

Historians do not perform heart transplants, improve highway design, or arrest criminals. In a society that quite correctly expects education to serve useful purposes, the functions of history can seem more difficult to define than those of engineering or medicine. History is in fact very useful, actually indispensable, but the products of historical study are less tangible, sometimes less immediate, than those that stem from some other disciplines.
In the past, history has been justified for reasons we would no longer accept. For instance, one of the reasons history holds its place in current education is because earlier leaders believed that knowledge of certain historical facts helped distinguish the educated from the uneducated. The person who could reel off the date of the Norman conquest of England (1066) or the name of the person who came up with the theory of evolution at about the same time that Darwin did was deemed superior—a better candidate for law school or even a business promotion.
Knowledge of historical facts has been used as a screening device in many societies, from China to the United States, and the habit is still with us to some extent. Unfortunately, this use can encourage mindless memorization—a real but not very appealing aspect of the discipline. History should be studied, because it is essential to individuals and to society, and because it harbours beauty. There are many ways to discuss the real functions of the subject—as there are many different historical talents and many different paths to historical meaning. All definitions of history's utility, however, rely on two fundamental facts.
In the first place, history offers a storehouse of information about how people and societies behave. Understanding the operations of people and societies is difficult, though a number of disciplines make the attempt. An exclusive reliance on current data would needlessly handicap our efforts. How can we evaluate war if the nation is at peace—unless we use historical materials? How can we understand genius, the influence of technological innovation, or the role that beliefs play in shaping family life, if we do not use what we know about experiences in the past? Some social scientists attempt to formulate laws or theories about human behaviour.
Nevertheless, even these recourses depend on historical information, except for in limited, often artificial cases in which experiments can be devised to determine how people act. Major aspects of a society's operation, like mass elections, missionary activities, or military alliances, cannot be set up as precise experiments. Consequently, history must serve, however imperfectly, as our laboratory, and data from the past must serve as our most vital evidence in the unavoidable quest to figure out why our complex species behaves as it does in societal settings. This, fundamentally, is why we cannot stay away from history: it offers the only extensive evidential base for the contemplation and analysis of how societies function, and people need to have some sense of how societies function simply to run their own lives.
The second reason history is inescapable as a subject of serious study follows closely on the first. The past causes the present, and so the future. Any time we try to know why something happened—whether a shift in political party dominance in the American Congress, a major change in the teenage suicide rate, or a war in the Balkans or the Middle East—we have to look for factors that took shape earlier. Sometimes fairly recent history will suffice to explain a major development, but often we need to look further back to identify the causes of change. Only through studying history can we grasp how things change; only through history can we begin to comprehend the factors that cause change; and only through history can we understand what elements of an institution or a society persist despite change.
These two fundamental reasons for studying history underlie more specific and quite diverse uses of history in our own lives. History well told is beautiful. Many of the historians who most appeal to the general reading public know the importance of dramatic and skilful writing—as well as of accuracy. Biography and military history appeal in part because of the tales they contain. History as art and entertainment serves a real purpose, on aesthetic grounds but also on the level of human understanding. Stories well done are stories that reveal how people and societies have actually functioned, and they prompt thoughts about the human experience in other times and places. The same aesthetic and humanistic goals inspire people to immerse themselves in efforts to reconstruct quite remote pasts, far removed from immediate, present-day utility. Exploring what historians sometimes call the "pastiness of the past"—the ways people in distant ages constructed their lives—involves a sense of beauty and excitement, and ultimately another perspective on human life and society.

History also provides a terrain for moral contemplation. Studying the stories of individuals and situations in the past allows a student of history to test his or her own moral sense, to hone it against some of the real complexities individuals have faced in difficult settings. People who have weathered adversity not just in some work of fiction, but in real, historical circumstances can provide inspiration. "History teaching by example" is one phrase that describes this use of a study of the past—a study not only of certifiable heroes, the great men and women of history who successfully worked through moral dilemmas, but also of more ordinary people who provide lessons in courage, diligence, or constructive protest.

History also helps provide identity, and this is unquestionably one of the reasons all modern nations encourage its teaching in some form. Historical data include evidence about how families, groups, institutions and whole countries were formed and about how they have evolved while retaining cohesion. For many Americans, studying the history of one's own family is the most obvious use of history, for it provides facts about genealogy and (at a slightly more complex level) a basis for understanding how the family has interacted with larger historical change.
Family identity is established and confirmed. Many institutions, businesses, communities, and social units, such as ethnic groups in the United States, use history for similar identity purposes. We merely defining the group in the present pales against the possibility of forming an identity based on a rich past. In addition, of course nations use identity history as well—and sometimes abuse it. Histories that tell the national story, emphasizing distinctive features of the national experience, are meant to drive home an understanding of national values and a commitment to national loyalty.

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