Gerardus Kelleger GERARDUS PRESS gewk1.com
Read this first before using: Web side of www.gewk1.com see Gerardus press for details.
 
 
Notifications URGENT information
to read first, urgent
 
 
Notificvation: Places to taste the excellence of food.
An addiction
 
 
32561 a view of God
The Western countries
 
 
32562 It's burning
The Negev....
 
 
32563 Anti-Semitism
The misuse
 
 
32564 The Karaites
Part 2
 
 
32565 Is Britian changing
Is it really?
 
 
32566 Part 3
The Karaites
 
 
32567 Britain
Slowly changing
 
 
32568 Sliding back?
The 30tier years
 
 
32569 Part 4
The Karaites
 
 
32570 non-Jews included
Anti-Semitism
 
 
32571 in the past.
Back to the future
 
 
32572 Part 5
The karaites
 
 
32573 Or hit him with the sword
Shall I beat him with a whip
 
 
32574 Follow the first reason
To follow the rest
 
 
32575 Confession
A brave outspoken
 
 
32576 walking to Christ
A small step
 
 
32577 The message
Christ
 
 
32578 The Corinthians
Morality
 
 
32579 The two Messiah's
David or Joseph
 
 
32580 By the grace of God
To be saved
 
 
32581 a naste web
we did weave
 
 
32582 Celebrating the birth of Christ
Midwinter holiday or....
 
 
32583 History
Following
 
 
32584 Climate change
The IPCC indication to
 
 
32585 Anti-Semitism
Common sense or......
 
 
32586 The first wave
Circassians
 
 
32587 chips of the first creation by man
Bible, Torah, Quran
 
 
32588 There is evil
In the darkness
 
 
32589 The US/UK want to rule the world.
O, what a nasty web we weave
 
 
32590 Ignored by Israel, US/UK.
Thou shall not kill
 
 
32591 A God's gift
Our free will
 
 
32592 from which angle you look at it
It is a creators story
 
 
32593 The old question
Will they see?
 
 
32594 It is the creators story
From which ever side you look
 
 
32595 An old question
Do we have an answer
 
 
32596 Lemuria
No: 3
 
 
32597 a balancing act
The Genesis story
 
 
32598 a believe or a confession
Faith
 
 
32599 and moraly corrupt, NATO
USA led
 
 
32600 Creating a beginning
Controlling people
 
 
32601 according to the bible
The bible
 
 
32602 against the words of Christ
For the love for Israel
 
 
32603 Genesis
Balancing the story
 
 
32604 Changing world
A look at a
 
 
32605 A small step in time
Christ
 
 
32606 web we weave in Belarus
What a terrible
 
 
32607 Indeed
A changing world
 
 
32608 in a changing world
Epifanie
 
 
32609 of Jesus.
For the love
 
 
32610 The scientists
The bible according to
 
 
32611 USA army extention
NATO the
 
 
32612 least among the leaders of Judah
You are by no means
 
 
32613 A BRAVE CONFESSION
Faith
 
 
32614 Free speech
We have a God given
 
 
32615 Into the light.
From the darkness
 
 
32616 Evolution
Creation or
 
 
32617 for Christ
All for the love
 
 
32618 or just a little bounce
Big Bang
 
 
32618 The return
Davids Message
 
 
32619 to be learned
A lessen
 
 
32620 The rule of Thump
Billions of death or,
 
 
32621 the wind blows
The lord
 
 
32622 suffering at the hand of God
All those who do not believe
 
 
32623 In the beginning
Homophobia
 
 
32624 Judiasm
The three branches
 
 
32625 re-told
An Old story
 
 
32626 A humanist
John Calvin
 
 
32627 and blamed on others.
Gods beginning. How to tell a story
 
 
32628 The foundation of
History
 
 
32629 Ulrich Zwingly
The history of
 
 
32630 The Messiah
Jesus
 
 
32631 What have we learne from
History
 
 
32632 non-belief
The atracted alternative
 
 
32633 a curious event
Viewing
 
 
32634 The real view.
Atheism,
 
 
32635 But are they?
Remember the laws of God
 
 
32636 God
We do acknowledge
 
 
32637 Adam the first man
The Hebrew creation
 
 
32638 Even as a humble Christian
U are needed.
 
 
32639 warning
A danger
 
 
32640 Only the smell of Greed, power and Control count.
For the West
 
 
32641 the prophets
Abraham
 
 
32642 an atrachted alternative
Believe,
 
 
32643 Jewish people
A invention
 
 
32644 AN INTELECTUAL DESIGNER
Was there really?
 
 
32645 in endless fear
Looking at it
 
 
32646 Ararat
A mountain to climb
 
 
32647 A reality?
A floating child
 
 
32648 Gods beginning
A new beginning
 
 
32649 a holy wonder
admiration
 
 
32650 your own windows
When you throw in,
 
 
32651 Atheists the religion
A clear view on,
 
 
32652 on a planet full of water
Not a drop to drink
 
 
32653 Christians
When Christians stand against
 
 
32654 John Calvin
A view at
 
 
32655 not answered
The questions
 
 
32656 WHEN WE DO NOT HEED
A WARNING
 
 
32657 on the warpath. no1
America
 
 
32658 war path. no2
America again on the
 
 
32659 of the Final words
The first
 
 
32660 Christianity
The basics of fear
 
 
32661 a gods creation
Abraham
 
 
32662 entslaving countries
A real American game
 
 
32663 or maybe in another million of years
The end is near
 
 
32664 the fears of Christianity
The final word
 
 
32665 Be good of cheers
A ship sailed
 
 
32666 a good spirit
Gods fear
 
 
32667 A good home
For a child
 
 
32668 The holy word
A close view
 
 
32669 Supernational
Viewing the
 
 
32670 religions
The Abrahamic
 
 
32671 the Abrahamic religions
Gay and
 
 
32672 Where they or.......
The fallen angels
 
 
32676 The UN abolished
Israel on the war path wants......
 
 

32629 Ulrich Zwingly

Ulrich Zwingli is one of the least well-known leaders in the Reformation movement as Martin Luther andJohn Calvin are both better known. Zwingli may have been influential in Zurich but did his influence ever extend out of the Swiss city? 

Northern Germany was very much under the influence of Martin Luther and the public spat between both men at the Marburg Colloquy did a great deal to undermine whatever influence Zwingli had in that area. Southern Germany tended to be under the control of the Catholic Church as Bavaria dominated the region. Therefore, within what we now call Germany, Zwingli had little influence. 

As a city, Zurich was too small to have much influence elsewhere. The merging of the church and state could work there because of the size of the city. Whether this would have worked in a larger city is open to debate. Martin Bucer had the same doctrinal views at Zwingli but he believed that the church and state should be two separate authorities, which should work in co-operation. However, Strasburg became a refugee for Protestant refugees, its lack of natural defences and military strength meant that it did not become a Protestant stronghold. 

Zwingli was associated too much with the educated urban classes and he did not have widespread social appeal. Zwingli was not a social reformer. He quickly lost the support of the peasants and the artisans, especially when the death penalty was introduced for Anabaptists – a group that offered radical social change and appealed to the less-well-to-do. 

The geography of Switzerland itself made it difficult for Zwingli’s beliefs to spread within the country. Mountain passes and the isolation of some cantons made the spread of new ideas at the very least difficult and at the worst all but impossible. Therefore, Zwingli’s influence was very much localised to one small area (Zurich) as opposed to Luther whose beliefs spread much further. Zwingli’s belief that a state should be church-controlled could only work in a small region where there was no history of one major family dominating that region. Zurich fitted this description well – but Zwingli’s influence only remained localised.

The other centre of Protestantism in the first generation was eastern Switzerland. Its leader was Ulrich (also Huldrych) Zwingli. His theology was in many ways similar to Luther's, but his career was quite different, and in the end the two men disagreed on a couple of key points.

Born at Wildhaus on 1 January 1484, Ulrich was the third of eight sons born to a middle class rural family. One of his uncles was a pastor in a neighbouring village and Ulrich was sent as a child there for his education. At ten he went to Basel, where he spent four years under the tutelage of Gregory Bünzi;. From there he returned home briefly in 1498, then was sent to Bern, to study under Lupulus (Heinrich Wülflin), a humanist scholar. He was at Bern for two years, then at Vienna for two more years.

From Vienna, he went back to Basel (1502). He was now eighteen and old enough to begin earning his own living, which he did by becoming a teacher himself. At the same time he pursued advanced degrees at Basel, earning his B.A. in 1504 and an M.A. in 1506. While studying at Basel Zwingli heard a series of lectures by Thomas Wittenbach that, among other topics, criticized the system of indulgences. This was twelve years before Luther. Zwingli himself says that Wittenbach was teaching in 1505 all on indulgences that Luther would argue twelve years later. We can see by this evidence that reformist ideas were not invented by individual pioneers in isolation, but were widespread and received ready audiences. The tinder, as it were, was spread widely and sparks were being struck, needing only the right circumstances to spread into a general conflagration. Zwingli left his formal studies and became pastor in the parish of Glarus in 1506. There for the next ten years he continued his humanist studies, learning Greek and taking a run at Hebrew.

These years were the heyday of the mercenary system in Switzerland. The Swiss had won renowned for their fighting abilities, and fighting had been endemic in Italy since the French invasion of 1494. Whole villages of young Swiss men hired out for military service, often in papal armies, and these armies needed chaplains. Zwingli three times served as chaplain to the contingent sent from his parish of Glarus, seeing action at Ravenna and Pavia in 1512, at Novara in 1513, and at Marignano in 1515. Partly as the result of what he saw there, but even more by the consequences he saw back home, Zwingli became an ardent critic of the mercenary system. He was not opposed to war; rather, he objected to the employment of native Swiss in foreign armies, for foreign causes.

He was also become quite a humanist during these years, finding time to increase his library and entering into correspondence with various figures, including Erasumus, whom he greatly admired. In connection with his language studies, he increasingly was looking to Scripture as the authoritative voice in answering certain questions. He was considering whether anyone besides Christ should be prayed to, why there should be variations in the celebration of the Mass (he'd found differences in texts that he had found while in Italy), and whether the communicants should receive communion in both kinds. He was still at the point where he would say not only that he could find no basis in Scripture but also not in the Church Fathers. That is, he had not come yet to sola scriptura, but he was clearly moving in that direction.

In 1516, he left his parish at Glarus (he remained officially priest there, employing a vicar in his absence) and went to Einsiedeln, probably because the church authorities in Glarus were so unhappy with his outspoken condemnation of mercenary activity. Einsiedeln was a major pilgrimage destination, and his new role was more purely that of preacher, so a much wider audience heard his message. Even though he was a great success as a preacher, Zwingli now also became a critic of the penance and pilgrimage system. He saw the same papal indulgence sellers that were to outrage Luther, and he shared Luther's opinion of them. At Einsiedeln, too, Zwingli began an intense study of the Bible.

He was invited to Zürich at the end of 1518, largely based on the fame he had won at Einsiedeln for his preaching, and based on his correspondence with various humanists, including Erasmus. He was named as "people's priest" at the Great Minster, which meant that preaching would be his primary duty. He gave his first sermon on his thirty-sixth birthday, 1 January 1519. He announced that he intended to preach beginning with the Gospel of Matthew, but that he would proceed based on Scripture alone, not taking into account the Church Fathers.

That does not sound like much, but at the time it was revolutionary, for it essentially turned the sermon into a Bible study. For many who heard him (as was the case for those who heard other evangelical preachers) this was the first time they had heard the Gospel preached directly and in terms, they could understand. Before, all they heard were the words of priests; now they were hearing the Word of God. It was heady stuff and Zwingli attracted not only large audiences but prestigious ones. The city fathers were listening and were persuaded.

Zwingli did even more than this, however. He was the People's Priest, this was his formal title, and he took his duties seriously. In addition to expounding on the Gospel on Sundays at the cathedral, he also gave sermons on Psalms in the town market square on Fridays, which was the town's market day. Thus, not only the townspeople heard the Word of God, so did the peasants from the surrounding countryside.

In 1522 the city council authorized evangelical preaching and ended the practice of sending mercenaries. On Ash Wednesday, some of Zwingli's followers broke the Lenten fast. Zwingli did not break the fast himself, but he defended his parishioners in a sermon "On the Choice and Free Use of Foods". He also married, though secretly.

On 19 January 1523, the city issued sixty-seven articles that represent the first codification of the Swiss Reformed Church. These articles were theses offered for disputation. Johann Faber, the vicar-general of the bishop of Constance, represented the Catholic side. The date was set for 29 January, but the debate was hardly more than show. The city was already strongly evangelical and the situation was already beyond retrieving for the Catholics.

Six hundred people attended. The evangelical side had a whole team assembled, with three Bibles on a table before them in Hebrew, Greek and Latin. As the disputation began, Faber was furious to find that the debate was going to be in German. The audience would be able to follow the ebb and flow of the debate, turning it into something of a public spectacle.

At first, he refused to participate. He sat in obstinate silence until the debate should be in Latin. The burgomaster declared that if no reply to the evangelical position were forthcoming, then Zwingli would be allowed to continue preaching. Faber was forced to respond; after all, he'd been sent to Zürich to stop that very thing.

It was far too late. Frustrated by proceedings that appeared to be weighted in favour of the evangelical position, he insisted there must be a judge, to which Zwingli replied, "The Spirit of God out of Holy Scripture itself is the judge." Needless to say, the city fathers ruled in favour of Zwingli.

Events were moving quickly. That fall, rioters broke into the churches and destroyed paintings, organs, and other "idols." These were removed officially in summer 1524. The Mass was abolished 12 April 1525. New baptismal (infant) rites were instituted in 1525 as well. In May 1525, a civil court was created to supervise marriages. In 1526 the city council took over the power of excommunication. Feeling threatened by the terms of the Edict of Worms (1529), Zürich formed the Christian Civic League, which by 1530 included Bern, Basel, Constance, Biel, Mühlhausen, Schaffhausen, St Gall, and Strassburg. The League had its own army. Not surprisingly, Swiss Catholic towns and villages themselves formed a league and fielded their own army. In 1531, at the Second Battle of Kappel, Zwingli died on the battlefield. He was there in the same capacity he had performed for papal armies, as a chaplain to the troops.

While we tend to focus on certain individuals in the Reformation – Luther, Calvin, and so on – you should think of them as catalysts for change but not as the sole driver of change. Zürich demonstrates this clearly, for the city never wavered from its course of reform and others stepped in to preach, minister and lead. The most important figure in the Swiss Reformation after the death of Zwingli was Heinrich Bullinger, who carried on and defended Zwingli's teachings. It was through Bullinger's writings that Zwingli’s found its way to England, for Zürich was home to English refugees during the reign of Queen Mary, and it was Bullinger they heard preach, not Zwingli.

Zwingli held a distinctive position in four significant areas: baptism, the Eucharist, the relationship between church and state, and the role of the minister. It was differences over the Eucharist that ultimately caused a split between Zwingli and Luther, despite repeated efforts to find a common ground. It was over baptism that Zwingli and the Anabaptists split. Zwingli also went further than either Calvin or Luther in how he saw the ministry working with the magistracy, which in turn was a significant factor in the outward form of their respective churches.

"That Christ, who has once offered Himself, is to all eternity the perpetual and redeeming sacrifice for the sins of all believers; therefore it follows that the Mass is not a sacrifice, only the commemoration of the sacrifice and the assurance of the redemption which Christ has shown us."

Zwingli wrote these words in 1523, as part of a series of articles laying out the reform position, as he understood it. Throughout his life, he would insist "the Mass is not a sacrifice, only a commemoration." This was an extreme position; neither Luther nor Calvin was willing to go so far.

Another point where Zwingli differed from the other reformers was in the role played by secular authority. For him, the constituted public authority, whether city council or worldly prince, had not only a duty to oversee the practice of right religion, but was in fact the proper custodian of right religion. Government is the Church made visible and effective in the world. So he was able to argue that a city council had, for example, the power to excommunicate. The city (or prince, but Zwingli's was a world of cities and cantons) could dictate public practices, oversee and supervise pastors, and from its authority there could be no appeal.

The effect of this position was to give public authority a much greater role in the Swiss Reformed Church than it played elsewhere, especially in the day-to-day regulation of religious life. You might think that Calvin's Geneva is a much better example, but there it was the Church that ran the State, whereas in Zürich it was the State that ran was running the Church.

While the greatest struggle within the Protestant movement in general was over the Eucharist, certainly the greatest struggle within Zürich itself was with fellow reformers over the issue of infant baptism. Zwingli was very clear on the matter. All sacraments were merely external signs, attestations by the faithful, but without any sacral or supernatural characteristics. Baptism did not wash away sins; rather, it was a community act of accepting someone into the Church. As such, it did not matter whether it was done in infancy or adulthood; it was purely symbolic. This is where he parted company with Grebel and the other Anabaptists.

The fourth area is an area that never concerned the reformers to begin with, but always wound up intruding: the relationship between church and state; or, as it was often stated in Germany and Switzerland, the relationship between minister and magistrate. The question arose as the process of reform began to work itself out in a practical way: who should pay the ministers, what should happen to the monasteries, what should be taught in schools, and so on. In cases of disagreement, should the minister be able to dictate to the magistrate, or vice versa?

It was a very old question. Zwingli, raised in the cities, ultimately came down in favour of the magistrates, but with guidance and advice from the ministers. Viewed in the abstract, Zwingli, Luther and Calvin all held the same position. But each placed emphasis differently, and in practice the relationship worked out differently. Luther never helped rule a city or realm, and his writings defer to the prince without much said about the details. Calvin and Zwingli, though, but had to deal directly with a city council and the ruling elite of a community. Calvin's response was to create an advisory body, the Consistory, to help guide the magistrates, but in practice, he and the ministers got their way on disputed matters.

Zwingli created something similar, but in practice the magistracy had greater leeway. This may have been at least partly a matter of temperament and local history, for both Zwingli and his successor Bullinger got along well with the local population and were regarded as one of them, whereas a faction in Geneva as an outsider always viewed Calvin. In any event, the Swiss Reformed Church had a tradition of working hand in glove with the secular authorities, from the days of Zwingli right down to modern times.

There is no Zwingli Church. The evangelism of the Calvinists gradually made inroads into central Switzerland and the reformers in the two camps eventually reached an accommodation with one another. It is not really right to call the result Calvinist, but more a matter of Zwinglianism with Calvinist influence. In truth, the best way to describe it is by its own name: the Swiss Reformed Church.

Beyond Switzerland, Zwingli's influence came in large part by way of the voluminous writings of Heinrich Bullinger. It noted the impact on England, where the main influence was on Anglican thinkers of the later 16th century. In a sense, much of the early Anabaptist movement derived from Zwingli, for the early founders (at least of the Swiss-German wing) came from or through Zürich. After the split with Zwingli, however, Anabaptism developed in directions of which he would not have approved.

 

Text-only version of this page  |  Edit this page  |  Manage website  |  Website design: 2-minute-website.com