The data collected on the voyage could significantly change our understanding of the way in which India, Australia and Antarctica broke off from Gondwana," said team member Joanne Whittaker, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Sydney.
The islands were found during a three-week voyage to map the seafloor of the Perth Abyssal Plain that concluded last week. Travelling on the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) vessel Southern Surveyor, the scientists discovered the islands through detailed seafloor mapping and by dredging rock samples from the steep slopes of the two islands that now are covered by about a mile (1.5 kilometers) of ocean water. Kumari Kandam Lemuria refers to a mythical lost continent with an ancient civilization, located south of present-day India in the.
In the 19th century, a section of the European and American scholars speculated the existence of a submerged continent called Lemuria, to explain geological and other similarities between Africa, Australia, India and Madagascar. A section of Tamil revivalists adapted this theory, connecting it to the Pandyan legends of lands lost to the ocean, as described in ancient Tamil and Sanskrit literature. According to these writers, an ancient Tamil civilization existed on Lemuria, before it was lost to the sea in a catastrophe. In the 20th century, the Tamil writers started using the name "Kumari Kandam" to describe this submerged continent.
Although the Lemuria theory was later rendered obsolete by the continental drift (plate tectonics) theory, the concept remained popular among the Tamil revivalists of the 20th century. According to them, Kumari Kandam was the place where the first two Tamil literary academies (sangams) were organized during the Pandyan reign. However it would explain why the populations of the Pacafic islands and the south/middle of South America have the same characterstics as those of the Tamir and southern parts of India.
It would also explain that after the land sunk people of Lemuria/Zealandia/Gondwana/Kandam all names for the same sunken land, people did show up in Africa, to which it almost did border. The high Mountains of the Himalaya formed a obstruction, although some of them managed to pass via the Vietnamese land tongue to march on did enter Japan where some of them did stay and that explains the Ainu/Ryukyuan/Jomon/Yayoi people the first migrants to the Japanese Archipelago came from somewhere in Southeast Asia in the Upper Paleolithic age, who were ancestors of the Jomon people.
The second wave of migration took place later in the Yayoi period, and the people came in this time from Northeast Asia. The indigenous Jomon people and the new migrants in and after the Yayoi period gradually mixed with each other. This model provides a reasonable explanation for the morphological similarity between the Ainu people of Hokkaido, the northernmost main island of the Japanese Archipelago, and the Ryukyuan (or Okinawan) people in the Southwest Archipelago, the rest moved on via the land link between Japan and Siberia where they formed the Inuit and the Indians of north and Middle America. When the people of the sunken land arrived in South Africa after a stable period slowly moves northwards into west Asia. However, it does not proof the reason but it was likely correlated with a depletion of resources (like food) in their regions and competition for those resources.
Once humans were able to communicate these concerns and make plans, they could assess together whether the pressures in their current home outweighed the risk of leaving to find a new one. When humans migrated from Africa to colder climates, they made clothing out of animal skins and constructed fires to keep themselves warm; often, they burned fires continuously through the winter. Sophisticated weapons, such as spears and bows and arrows, allowed them to kill large mammals efficiently. Along with changing climates, these hunting methods contributed to the extinction of giant land mammals such as mammoths, giant kangaroos, and mastodons. Fewer giant mammals, in turn, limited hunters’ available prey.
In addition to hunting animals and killing them out of self-defence, they hunt each other, and still do. Since Chimpanzees are technically hominids, and have been targeted by human hunters, hominids still hunt each other. However, I assume that you're talking about prehistoric hominids, and the answer to that is that we don't know.
There is very limited information on interaction between hominid species. Most hominids have a diet largely based on vegetables and scavenging. Active hunting is rare, and hunting other predators is extremely rare. So any conflict between hominids would be rare. Similar, it would be difficult for different hominid species to communicate with each other, so it's unlikely that they would have cooperated with us. Humans today don't trade with chimpanzees or gorillas largely because of this extremely steep communication barrier.
However, we do know that Neanderthals and Homo sapiens interacted. This is evidenced by the presence of Neanderthal DNA in the genome of people of European, Middle Eastern, and Asian descent. That indicates that there was at least some inbreeding between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens, which suggests intimate relationships between the two groups. Beyond that, the nature of Neanderthal-Homo sapiens interaction is still unclear. Our ancestors did know how to communicate with each other. I believe early primates easily used body language as a start (look at modern primate studies showing complicated body language within species). (Indeed, look at modern homo's use of body language). As these primates evolved, they used their increased motor skills and memory to create sign language.
Spoken 'language' was often counterproductive as it allowed others (predators) to hear you. Look at the success of modern men who are deaf but communicate easily with sign.
There are only three truly important things in the life of a primate: food, clothing, shelter. Any one of these would encourage a clever primate to find any or all of these three. Migration is just one response to these needs. Then humans began to use the earth’s resources in new ways when they constructed semi-permanent settlements. Humans started shifting from nomadic lifestyles to fixed homes, using the natural resources there. Semi-permanent settlements would be the building-blocks of established communities and the development of agricultural practices. Crossed themselves with the other species like the Neanderthals and other they assimilated into the mass of the Homo sapiens.
But the question still stands, did they have sprits, deities or gods. In the beginning they had not, life was a simple survival of the fittest, hunters and self preservation. It was after the disasters of the sunken land, the transfer to new places, and the great unknown when the questions started to arrive. That sudden thunder, lightening, the earth quakes, the dark shadows in the trees, the unknown animals, the sun, the moon, the stars, it all did frightened them.
It was only a matter of time before a cleverer one stood up and a spirit, deity or god was invented. All those things could destroy them unless they gave him what he wanted and then he could avoid those terrible things. It of course never did work, but for that was also a solution, a sacrifice needed to be made to get on the friendly site of the spirits, the deity, the god. And of course there was always a person that was not like, stood in the way or a nuisance which would be the one who create the troubles and needed to be scarified.