Gerardus Kelleger GERARDUS PRESS
Read this first before using: Web side of see Gerardus press for details.
Notifications URGENT information
to read first, urgent
32586 The first wave
32587 chips of the first creation by man
Bible, Torah, Quran
32589 The US/UK want to rule the world.
O, what a nasty web we weave
32590 Ignored by Israel, US/UK.
Thou shall not kill
32592 from which angle you look at it
It is a creators story
32596 Lemuria
No: 3
32599 and moraly corrupt, NATO
USA led
32606 web we weave in Belarus
What a terrible
32608 in a changing world
32610 The scientists
The bible according to
32611 USA army extention
NATO the
32614 Free speech
We have a God given
32615 Into the light.
From the darkness
32616 Evolution
Creation or
32617 for Christ
All for the love
32618 or just a little bounce
Big Bang
32618 The return
Davids Message
32619 to be learned
A lessen
32620 The rule of Thump
Billions of death or,
32621 the wind blows
The lord
32622 suffering at the hand of God
All those who do not believe
32623 In the beginning
32624 Judiasm
The three branches
32625 re-told
An Old story
32626 A humanist
John Calvin
32627 and blamed on others.
Gods beginning. How to tell a story
32628 The foundation of
32629 Ulrich Zwingly
The history of
32630 The Messiah
32631 What have we learne from
32632 non-belief
The atracted alternative
32633 a curious event
32634 The real view.
32635 But are they?
Remember the laws of God
32636 God
We do acknowledge
32637 Adam the first man
The Hebrew creation
32638 Even as a humble Christian
U are needed.
32639 warning
A danger
32640 Only the smell of Greed, power and Control count.
For the West
32641 the prophets
32642 an atrachted alternative
32643 Jewish people
A invention
Was there really?
32645 in endless fear
Looking at it
32646 Ararat
A mountain to climb
32647 A reality?
A floating child
32648 Gods beginning
A new beginning
32649 a holy wonder
32650 your own windows
When you throw in,
32651 Atheists the religion
A clear view on,
32652 on a planet full of water
Not a drop to drink
32653 Christians
When Christians stand against
32654 John Calvin
A view at
32655 not answered
The questions
32657 on the warpath. no1
32658 war path. no2
America again on the
32659 of the Final words
The first
32660 Christianity
The basics of fear
32661 a gods creation
32662 entslaving countries
A real American game
32663 or maybe in another million of years
The end is near
32664 the fears of Christianity
The final word
32665 Be good of cheers
A ship sailed
32666 a good spirit
Gods fear
32667 A good home
For a child
32668 The holy word
A close view
32669 Supernational
Viewing the
32670 religions
The Abrahamic
32671 the Abrahamic religions
Gay and
32672 Where they or.......
The fallen angels
32676 The UN abolished
Israel on the war path wants......
32768 of torture
The pleasure

32586 The first wave

The Circassia’s are one of the indigenous peoples of the North West Caucasus. Their self-appellation is Adyge and they are titular nations in the republics of Adygeya, Karachay-Cherkessia and Kabardino-Balkaria. Smaller numbers of them are also found in adjacent Russian regions. Circassia’s, as much scattered in their homeland as in diaspora, live in several constituent units of the Russian Federation (RF) that are cut off from each other both geographically and administratively. According to the 2002 census, there were a total of 720,000 Circassia’s living in the Russian Federation at the time.

In both the Soviet and post-Soviet periods, the terminology used in Russian academia and the administrative structures to define the Circassia’s was somewhat inconsistent. The Soviets defined them as Adygean, Cherkessk, Kabardian and Shapsough depending on their place of residence and the dialect of the Circassia language spoken.

The first of these terms is a derivation from the Circassia self-designation. The second is the pre-Soviet exonym in Russian, while the third and fourth terms are the names of two Circassia sub-groups. The post-Soviet Russian administrations have carried on with this terminology, but in recent years the Adyge themselves have begun to advocate the official use of Circassia to denote their unity as one people. In fact some Circassia activists are currently running a campaign for that objective in the upcoming All-Russian population census, which is planned for October 2010.

The Circassia Diaspora came about because of the Russian conquests in the North-West Caucasus in the mid1860’s, when approximately a million people were removed from their land and deported to the Ottoman Empire. Up to a third perished from hunger and disease in the Russian controlled coastal areas before their departure, on overcrowded ships or in refugee camps on their arrival in Anatolia and the Balkans. The descendants of those who survived the ordeal, which Circassia’s and an increasing number of scholars and journalists call the “Circassia Genocide,” currently number is estimated but not confirmed of around 3 million in Turkey and 500,000 elsewhere in Middle East, the USA and the Western Europe.

While all kinds of political activists are utilizing the internet intensively in the contemporary Northwest Caucasus, the secular Circassia nationalist activists are emerging. For the past few years they have been heavily present on the internet, not only to obtain and disseminate news about the Circassia world, but also to propagate their manifesto and to debate and analyze old and new texts & books dealing with various aspects of Circassia history and politics - a practice that has a visible impact on their political manifesto.

The first wave of Circassia nationalist activism appeared in the early 1990s during Yeltsin’s reign. It gained popular support and became a potent actor in the struggle for power in the early post-Soviet era. This was activated by the participation of up to two thousand Circassia volunteers in the Georgian-Abkhazian war started by Georgia in 1992 were the fought on the side of the Abkhaz, who are ethnically very close to them. Most of the demands of the nationalists were heard and mostly acted upon by the local and central authorities. The exception is that of Karachay-Cherkessia, where they were in the minority and locked in a struggle for power with the Karachay. For instance, Adygeya’s status was upgraded to a republic; mechanisms for administrative parity between Circassia’s and Russians were put in place, even though Circassia’s only constituted 22% of the population. Circassia elites dominated the political scene in Kabardino-Balkaria and the citizenship process was made easy for returnees.

In time, however, former local bureaucratic elites, who by then had already adapted to post-Soviet conditions and firmly restored themselves to positions of power, absorbed these nationalist movements into the establishment.  After Putin became President, the largest organisation, the International Circassia Association (ICA), was gradually taken over by the functionaries of the governing Kabardian elites.  By the end of 2000 some of the leading members who refused to be co-opted, had been eliminated from the political scene, leaving no functioning independent nationalist organisations.

The Chechen War 1994-96 also had a negative impact on the overall political environment in the whole of the North Caucasus, including the Circassia part. Various religious movements began to fill the social vacuum that had been created first by the collapse of the Soviet order and then by the diminishing appeal of nationalism, especially in Kabardino-Balkaria, where an Islamic movement began to take root amongst the Circassia’s. Indiscriminate police brutality and political oppression at the hands of the local security structures radicalized the followers, who were mostly alienated youngsters affected by social issues such as alcohol and drug abuse, a breakdown of moral values and lack of career prospects locally. Their frustration was galvanized by the leaders of the movement into making the Islamists a formidable contender, the 2005 raid on Nalchik (RU) those fateful events, by a large group of militants on Nalchik (pop. 250,000), in the Karbadino-Balkar Republic (KBR) in the south of Russia, on 13 October 2005. A number of buildings associated with the Russian security forces were targeted. At least 80 people (142 according to official tallies), including at least 14 civilians, were reported to have been killed during the ensuing shooting, which continued into the next day. At least 240 wounded. Russian media subsequently drew the conclusion that at least drugs (heroin), due their delayed reactions to grenade blasts, et al, stoned some of the fighters. The Islamists began to lose support and a new breed of nationalist organisations began to appear on the scene.

Despite the fact that some of the current leading figures in the Circassia nationalist movement are veterans of early 1990s activism, the bulk of the current activists are by and large new to the scene. They are typically aged between 18 and 28 and, unlike the veterans, have no memories of the war in Abkhazia. When it comes to political issues they are unrestrained by the traditionally unquestioned authority of the elders in Circassia society. There are currently two major activist groupings in Circassia politics in the Northwest Caucasus:

The ICA, which was founded in 1991, is actually an umbrella organisation comprising the main Circassia organisations of the time in the Caucasus and in the diasporas in Turkey, Europe, the USA, Syria and Jordan. It was very influential during the war in Abkhazia in 1992-93 between the Karachay and Circassia’s.

After coming under the full control of the pro-Moscow Kabardian elites in 2000, the ICA leaders have repeatedly stated that they no longer want to engage in political matters and are merely concerned with the cultural and linguistic needs of the community. However, of late the Adyge Khases [Хасэ –assembly ed] in Adygeya and Karachay-Cherkessia, under the respective leaderships of Arambi Khapai and Mukhammed Cherkesov, have begun actively engaging in ethnic politics.  Their position on political issues such as the unification of Circassian republics or the Circassia Genocide thus differs greatly from the official position of the ICA, of which both organisations are members. It may be misleading to call these organisations second generation, because some of their leading figures actually belong to the earlier generation of the activists of the 1990s.  I use this term as they now have a different follower base, pursue different recruitment strategies and are very keen to engage with international political actors for their cause, all of which distinguishes them from the ICA.

“The Cherkessk Congress”, “Youth Khase” and “Khase” in Adygeya, Karachay-Cherkessia and Kabardino-Balkaria come into this category as all of them have come into being in the last decade. In general, they were born out of frustration with established organisations and their perceived political inactivity. The leading figures are Ruslan Keshev, Ibragim Yaganov, Murat Berzegov and Fatima Tlisova.  The last two have recently moved to the US after being repeatedly subjected to threats and physical attacks for their political and journalistic activities.

Text-only version of this page  |  Edit this page  |  Manage website  |  Website design: