Gerardus Kelleger GERARDUS PRESS gewk1.com
Read this first before using: Web side of www.gewk1.com see Gerardus press for details.
 
 
Notifications URGENT information
to read first, urgent
 
 
Notificvation: Places to taste the excellence of food.
An addiction
 
 
32561 a view of God
The Western countries
 
 
32562 It's burning
The Negev....
 
 
32563 Anti-Semitism
The misuse
 
 
32564 The Karaites
Part 2
 
 
32565 Is Britian changing
Is it really?
 
 
32566 Part 3
The Karaites
 
 
32567 Britain
Slowly changing
 
 
32568 Sliding back?
The 30tier years
 
 
32569 Part 4
The Karaites
 
 
32570 non-Jews included
Anti-Semitism
 
 
32571 in the past.
Back to the future
 
 
32572 Part 5
The karaites
 
 
32573 Or hit him with the sword
Shall I beat him with a whip
 
 
32574 Follow the first reason
To follow the rest
 
 
32575 Confession
A brave outspoken
 
 
32576 walking to Christ
A small step
 
 
32577 The message
Christ
 
 
32578 The Corinthians
Morality
 
 
32579 The two Messiah's
David or Joseph
 
 
32580 By the grace of God
To be saved
 
 
32581 a naste web
we did weave
 
 
32582 Celebrating the birth of Christ
Midwinter holiday or....
 
 
32583 History
Following
 
 
32584 Climate change
The IPCC indication to
 
 
32585 Anti-Semitism
Common sense or......
 
 
32586 The first wave
Circassians
 
 
32587 chips of the first creation by man
Bible, Torah, Quran
 
 
32588 There is evil
In the darkness
 
 
32589 The US/UK want to rule the world.
O, what a nasty web we weave
 
 
32590 Ignored by Israel, US/UK.
Thou shall not kill
 
 
32591 A God's gift
Our free will
 
 
32592 from which angle you look at it
It is a creators story
 
 
32593 The old question
Will they see?
 
 
32594 It is the creators story
From which ever side you look
 
 
32595 An old question
Do we have an answer
 
 
32596 Lemuria
No: 3
 
 
32597 a balancing act
The Genesis story
 
 
32598 a believe or a confession
Faith
 
 
32599 and moraly corrupt, NATO
USA led
 
 
32600 Creating a beginning
Controlling people
 
 
32601 according to the bible
The bible
 
 
32602 against the words of Christ
For the love for Israel
 
 
32603 Genesis
Balancing the story
 
 
32604 Changing world
A look at a
 
 
32605 A small step in time
Christ
 
 
32606 web we weave in Belarus
What a terrible
 
 
32607 Indeed
A changing world
 
 
32608 in a changing world
Epifanie
 
 
32609 of Jesus.
For the love
 
 
32610 The scientists
The bible according to
 
 
32611 USA army extention
NATO the
 
 
32612 least among the leaders of Judah
You are by no means
 
 
32613 A BRAVE CONFESSION
Faith
 
 
32614 Free speech
We have a God given
 
 
32615 Into the light.
From the darkness
 
 
32616 Evolution
Creation or
 
 
32617 for Christ
All for the love
 
 
32618 or just a little bounce
Big Bang
 
 
32618 The return
Davids Message
 
 
32619 to be learned
A lessen
 
 
32620 The rule of Thump
Billions of death or,
 
 
32621 the wind blows
The lord
 
 
32622 suffering at the hand of God
All those who do not believe
 
 
32623 In the beginning
Homophobia
 
 
32624 Judiasm
The three branches
 
 
32625 re-told
An Old story
 
 
32626 A humanist
John Calvin
 
 
32627 and blamed on others.
Gods beginning. How to tell a story
 
 
32628 The foundation of
History
 
 
32629 Ulrich Zwingly
The history of
 
 
32630 The Messiah
Jesus
 
 
32631 What have we learne from
History
 
 
32632 non-belief
The atracted alternative
 
 
32633 a curious event
Viewing
 
 
32634 The real view.
Atheism,
 
 
32635 But are they?
Remember the laws of God
 
 
32636 God
We do acknowledge
 
 
32637 Adam the first man
The Hebrew creation
 
 
32638 Even as a humble Christian
U are needed.
 
 
32639 warning
A danger
 
 
32640 Only the smell of Greed, power and Control count.
For the West
 
 
32641 the prophets
Abraham
 
 
32642 an atrachted alternative
Believe,
 
 
32643 Jewish people
A invention
 
 
32644 AN INTELECTUAL DESIGNER
Was there really?
 
 
32645 in endless fear
Looking at it
 
 
32646 Ararat
A mountain to climb
 
 
32647 A reality?
A floating child
 
 
32648 Gods beginning
A new beginning
 
 
32649 a holy wonder
admiration
 
 
32650 your own windows
When you throw in,
 
 
32651 Atheists the religion
A clear view on,
 
 
32652 on a planet full of water
Not a drop to drink
 
 
32653 Christians
When Christians stand against
 
 
32654 John Calvin
A view at
 
 
32655 not answered
The questions
 
 
32656 WHEN WE DO NOT HEED
A WARNING
 
 
32657 on the warpath. no1
America
 
 
32658 war path. no2
America again on the
 
 
32659 of the Final words
The first
 
 
32660 Christianity
The basics of fear
 
 
32661 a gods creation
Abraham
 
 
32662 entslaving countries
A real American game
 
 
32663 or maybe in another million of years
The end is near
 
 
32664 the fears of Christianity
The final word
 
 
32665 Be good of cheers
A ship sailed
 
 
32666 a good spirit
Gods fear
 
 
32667 A good home
For a child
 
 
32668 The holy word
A close view
 
 
32669 Supernational
Viewing the
 
 
32670 religions
The Abrahamic
 
 
32671 the Abrahamic religions
Gay and
 
 
32672 Where they or.......
The fallen angels
 
 
32676 The UN abolished
Israel on the war path wants......
 
 

32569 Part 4

All these writers were, however, surpassed by Abraham Firkovich (1786-1874), whose literary activity covered nearly fifty years, and who calls for more extended notice, because his name is closely associated both with the development of Karaite science and with one of the greatest historical forgeries. The finding of Karaite antiquities in the Crimea happened as follows, according to impartial accounts (comp. Harkavy, "Altjüdische Denkmäleraus der Krim," 1876, pp. 206 et seq.): When Emperor Nicholas I. visited the Crimea for the first time, in 1836, the governor-general of southern Russia, Prince Michail Woronzow, undertook to restore and furnish in truly Oriental style the old castle of the khans at Bakhchiserai. He entrusted the necessary purchases to the Karaite merchant Simah Bobowitsch, a man of affairs who had business relations in Constantinople. Bobowitsch went to that city and received during an audience with the sultan permission to select what he needed from the sultan's castles and warehouses.

On his return to Bakhchiserai, Bobowitsch also had charge of furnishing the castle, remaining even after the czar had arrived. At that time a deputation of the Crimean Rabbinite Jews (the Krimchaks) was presented to the czar, and, like the other natives of the Crimea, they submitted their petition to be released from military service. The czar asked the delegates: "You believe in the Talmud?" "Yes, your majesty; we believe in it," they replied. "Then you must furnish soldiers," the czar replied curtly. On this occasion Prince Woronzow said to Bobowitsch: "You see, Bobowitsch that you Karaites have done a very sensible thing in cutting loose from the Talmud; when did this happen?" Bobowitsch thereupon replied that the Karaites never had had anything to do with the Talmud, that their religion was older than the Jewish religion, that the Karaites had taken no part in persecuting and crucifying Jesus, and made other statements current among the Karaites. "Can you prove this?" asked the prince. "Certainly," replied Bobowitsch.

When subsequently, in 1839, a society for history and antiquities was formed at Odessa, Woronzow remembered Bobowitsch's promise. Bobowitsch had in the meantime been elected chief of the Crimean Karaites, and commissioned his tutor Firkovich, who was known as an inveterate foe of Rabbinism, to furnish the necessary documents proving the great age of Karaism, especially in the Crimea, giving him, in addition to travelling expenses, a definite salary while occupied in this work. He furthermore procured for Firkovich an authorization from the government to collect all the necessary records and historical documents among the Karaites and Jews. Armed with this authority Firkovich travelled through the Crimea and the Caucasus; he took from their owners whatever documents he deemed necessary, plundering especially the rabbinic Krimchaks; fabricated various epitaphs (among them that of Isaac Sangari and his wife) and epigraphs in manuscripts; tampered with the dates of documents, and interpolated the names of Crimean localities and Karaite personages in many of them.

He did all this for the sole purpose of representing the Karaites in the Crimea as a highly developed people dwelling there since the time of the Assyrian king Shalmaneser, in the seventh century B.C., and of proving that the Rabbinate Jews owed all their culture to the Karaites, especially Hebrew grammar, punctuation, Masorah, poetry, etc. Extravagant and surprising as these alleged facts seem nowadays, they yet found credence at that time in Russia, especially in government circles, though not for unselfish reasons. Attempts were even made to defend these forgeries on quasi scientific grounds. They paved the way for the emancipation of the Russian Karaites, who according to the alleged documentary evidence were shown to have lived in Russia long before the birth of Jesus, and had therefore taken no part in the crucifixion. This argument, however, is not original with the Karaites, for it is well known that various old Jewish communities in Spain and Germany brought it forward in their defense during the Middle Ages.

In several cases the Russian Karaites had resorted to it previously, of course backing it with silver, to advance their separation from the Rabbinates—in 1795, for instance, when they were exempted from the double taxation imposed upon the Rabbinates Jews at the instance of the venal Count Zubow, and in 1828, when they were exempted from military service. But in general they were considered in Russia, as everywhere else, as a relatively late Jewish sect, until Firkovich, on the strength of his "discoveries," renounced all connection with Jews and Judaism, and even with the name of "Hebrew," claiming the name of "Russian Karaite." Thanks to his labours and pretensions, which, as was then customary, were accompanied by considerable gifts to influential persons, the Russian Karaites received full civic liberty in 1863, which was confirmed with special emphasis in 1881 by the well-known anti-Semitic minister Nicholai Ignatieff.

The recognition of the human and civil rights of the followers of any confession need not be deprecated; yet it is deeply to be regretted that the foremost champions of the rights of the Russian Karaites and their Christian fellows at the same time endeavoured, and still endeavour, to cast slurs upon Judaism and to vilify the Rabbinate Jews, emphasizing the weak points of Rabbinic in order to show the alleged superiority of Karaism to better advantage. This inimical attitude of Russian Karaism and its paid protectors was occasioned by Firkovich. Nevertheless, it must be noted that Firkovich, with his industry in collecting much valuable material, rendered great services not only to Karaite literature (the material discovered by him and edited scientifically by S. Pinsker and others marking an important epoch of this literature), but also to the history and literature of the Rabbinate Jews and Samaritans. In conclusion it may be observed that Karaism, in opposing and criticizing the party of the Rabbinates, has done good service to the latter. The Karaites are estimated to number about 10,000 in Russia and about 2,000 in other countries.

Karaism is not, as asserted by its opponents, the outcome of mere personal ambition, but the natural reaction and counter-movement against Talmudism brought to a state of stagnation in the Saborean and early geonic period. In pointing to the written Law or Scripture as the only divine source of authority, it gave to Judaism a healthy stimulus in the direction of renewed Bible study and research and inaugurated a new epoch in Jewish history. Its weakness, however, consisted in its being an altogether retrogressive movement, deriving support from remnants, literary or otherwise, of seemingly long extinct Sadducee and Essence doctrines, and ignoring the progressive element represented by the rabbinic Halakah, in favour of Sadducee adherence to the letter of the Law (see Geiger, "Gesammelte Schriften," iii. 283 et seq.; Grätz, "Gesch." iii. 413-429).

However bold and original Anan's combination of the Sadducees and rabbinic methods in his system of hermeneutics, the longing for the past glory of Zion, for the restoration of the Temple with its sacrificial and Leviticus laws of purity, lent Karaism a sober, ascetic, and world-shunning character. "Only when and where wine and meat can be offered upon the altar may they be used at the table," was made the maxim of the Karaite "mourner for Zion," even though later Karaism did not adhere to it (Harkavy, "Liḳḳue admoniyyot," ii. 1903,  jurisdiction in civil as well as in criminal cases, outside the Holy Land, is suspended, though he who does not act in conformity with the Law should be excommunicated ; perfect separation from the Gentiles is enjoined, and no meal prepared in any form by them should be eaten . Rigorous Essences rules are inculcated in regard to married life; menstrual fluid, human excrement, blood, and any other unclean issue must be covered with earth; privies must be kept distant from the limit of human dwellings; ablution of both hands and feet after every easement of the body, and before entering the synagogue or reading from the Law.

It is required; both the water and the laver must be kept holy. None is allowed to enter the synagogue or read from the scroll of the Law with shoes on his feet, or after having taken wine; to irreverent treatment of a single Law there is attached the penalty of death by God's hand or of excommunication by man. Tefillin are not recognized as Biblical, Deut. vi. 8 and xi. 18 being taken symbolically; all the more sacredness is ascribed to the iit, which must be twisted, spun, and attached by an Israelite expressly trained for the purpose. Circumcision must be performed by a Jewish believer, with a consecrated instrument (scissors), and after the person has been consecrated; for proselytes the eighth, and for other adults the eleventh, day of the month is set apart, and in the case of both Periah is omitted Regarding the Sabbath, the rules enforced are the same as those of the Samaritans and Falashas, and as those prescribed in the Book of Jubilees: No light or fire is allowed; marital intercourse and leaving the house are forbidden (later, it was permissibleto go as far as 2,000 yards); light burdens, however, may be carried in the hand. No kind of work may be done by a non-Jew for a Jew. The act of circumcision on the eighth day should be performed upon the child at the close of the Sabbath, so that the work of healing may take place on Sunday nor may the Passover lamb be sacrificed on a Sabbath. All work except preparation of food is prohibited also on the holy days; so is the slaughtering of animals

The "maẓẓah," as the bread of affliction, should be made of barley. Shabu'ot must always be observed on the day after Sabbath, as the Sadducces and Samaritans interpret the Biblical "the morrow of the Sabbath" (Lev. xxiii. 16). The "Sukkah" should be made of the plants mentioned in Lev. xxiii. 40 and Neh. viii. 15. The 1st of Tishri is a day of "contrition," not of the blowing of the shofar; the beginning of the year is the 1st of Nisan; and a second Sheba (not Adar) is the intercalary month in a leap-year. anukkah is not celebrated; Purim is a two days' fast; and there is a seventy days' fast in remembrance of the Haman persecution, and a fast on the seventh day of every month; the source is unknown as yet). Instead of the 9th, the 10th of Ab is the fast-day in memory of the destruction of Jerusalem. The New-Moon is fixed by observation.

 

 

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