Gerardus Kelleger GERARDUS PRESS
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Notifications URGENT information
to read first, urgent
32495 converted by the media
The bible stories
32496 Aut Nihil
Aut Ceasar
32497 or just a simple flooding
Noah's ark
32498 The artificial created anti-Semitism
32499 proof later
Believing first
32500 or just faith.....
An addiction
32501 Bestowed upon us by God
The manner of love
32502 of all.....
The saviour
32503 Who is fooling who
The main question
32504 But who is doubtingh the creation
Some doubt
32505 will He return to us.....
2000 years ago
32506 The story of the Ukraine
Bandera the so admired killer in WW2 by the EU.
32507 With the devil on your side
Who can fail.....
32508 It grows.
Belief is like a tree
32509 I will presch........
Being the least of all saints
32510 The bibles answers
Who can.......
32511 Antique books.
Killing off a market
32512 A path for us.....
God has laid out
32513 You can move mountains.
If you belief
32514 without a church
Spreading the word
32515 On heaven and Earth
Praising the Lord
32516 or are they not?
Are they?
32517 Let us pray.....
When we say.....
32518 wrote those words?
Did Mordecai
32519 Without Jesus?
Would the Hebrew be known
32520 Any real proof of Jesus?
But is there any?
32521 a belief?
32522 Immunity
A system
32523 Revive thy work
Oh Lord
32524 What to do with him
A masn called Christ
32525 Spirits, deities and gods
first three pages
32526 Are the churches getting the hungry
To the table...
32527 Called Jesus.
What tyo do with a man
32528 The mediator
32529 Spirits, Deities, Gods
second part
32530 I should do.
What is it....
32531 It rules religion
32532 full of self control
See a man
32533 Spirits, Deitie, Gods
part four
32534 In the hand of God
We are sinners
32535 Are you?
Iam a Christian
32536 The microben
Human health
32537 Where is my strenght
Heavenly father
32538 Spirits, Deities, Gods
Part four
32539 He shall help us
Do not hesitate
32541 Microbal inflamation
Maladaption of the body
32542 of the feet
The washing.....
32543 Spitits, Deities, Gods
Part five
32544 from gopfor wood
Make yourself an ark
32545 What is life to you,
Our life,
32546 Use it well
Time is short,
32547 When old passes away
All becomes new
32548 Spirits, Deities, Gods
part Six
32549 His love will remove it.
32550 It stirs up your love
His love
32551 The holy spit works.
Through providence
32552 Hell for you.
Hell will be.....
32553 Spirits, Deities, Gods
part seven
32554 Rejoice.......
All the people......
32555 The killing of Floyd
The previous history of
32556 Language
streken Frysk
32557 Karaites
The story
32558 God
The concurend
32559 Atheist
Part two
32560 McCarthyism
A look in the past
32561 a view of God
The Western countries
32562 It's burning
The Negev....
32563 Anti-Semitism
The misuse
32564 The Karaites
Part 2
32565 Is Britian changing
Is it really?
32566 Part 3
The Karaites
32567 Britain
Slowly changing
32568 Sliding back?
The 30tier years
32569 Part 4
The Karaites
32570 non-Jews included
32571 in the past.
Back to the future
32572 Part 5
The karaites
32573 Or hit him with the sword
Shall I beat him with a whip
32574 Follow the first reason
To follow the rest

32557 Karaites

These divergences contributed not a little to the undermining of Anan's authority among the Karaites, and his faithful followers, the Ananites, were pushed to the wall; as their rigorous observances were entirely unsuited to ordinary life, they were finally obliged to emigrate to Jerusalem and adopt the hermit life of the old Essenes, as mourners for Zion. Gradually disappearing, they left the field free for the great noontide of Karaism in the tenth and eleventh centuries. The representatives of this epoch are: Abu Yusuf Ya'ub al-irisani, Sahl ibn Malia, Solomon ben Jeroham, Yafith ibn 'Ali, David al-Fasi, Abu al-Faraj Harun, Yusuf al-Bair and his pupil Abu al-Faraj Furan.


The first-named, Abu Yusuf Ya'ub al-irisani (called incorrectly by later authors and even by Steinschneider, "Yusuf" instead of "Abu Yusuf"), wrote in the third and fourth decades of the tenth century; he is a unique figure in Karaite literature on account of his historical sense, his comprehensive survey of the development of the Jewish sects, and his acute, even if partial, criticism of his predecessors. For the historical part of his work he consulted the works of David ibn Merwan al-Muamma see Jew. Encyc. iv. 466, where he is confounded with a later David al-Muamma) and the accounts of Mohammedanwriters, whose works, however, have not been handed down. Although a great admirer of Anan, whom he frequently defends, Ya'ub seldom agrees with him, and generally endeavors to mitigate the severity of the heresiarch's legal interpretations. Al-irisani went very far in regard to forbidden marriages, being one of the chief representatives of the so-called "system of extension" ("rikkub").

Al-irisani was, so far as is known, the first Karaite writer to defend the dictates of common sense and of knowledge in religious matters; the second part of his chief work, "Kitab al-Anwar" (Book of Lights), treats of the necessity of investigation and of reason, and of the determination of the proofs of reason and analogical conclusions. He adopts for Karaism without modification the views of the Motekallamin and the Motazilites. Since that time there has been a wide schism in Karaism between the followers of scientific investigation, who patterned their theology on the Mohammedan kalam and the Motazilite doctrines, and the Orthodox, who would have nothing to do with philosophy and science. Among the former are some Karaite scholars of the tenth century mentioned by their contemporary the Arabian polyhistor 'Ali al-Mas'udi, and Yusuf al-Bair, the foremost Karaite philosophical writer, together with his pupil Abu al-Faraj Furan (Jeshua b. Judah; about the middle of the eleventh century). Among the latter are the important Karaite authors Sahl ibn Malia, Solomon ben Jeroham, and Yafith ibn 'Ali, all three of whom lived during the middle and the end of the tenth century. The Karaites produced no original author in this field after the middle of the eleventh century, but merely translators from the Arabic, compilers, and imitators, such as Israel Maghrabi and his pupil Yafith ibn Saghir (13th cent.), Solomon Nasi (Abu al-Fal; 13th cent.), Samuel Maghrabi (14th cent.), and others.

The following Karaite writers of this epoch cultivating other fields are noteworthy: Exegetes: Al-irisani, Sahl ibn Malia, Solomon ben Jeroham, Yafith ibn 'Ali, and Yusuf ibn Nu (10th cent.); Abu al-Faraj Harun, Abu al-Faraj Furan, and 'Ali ibn Sulaiman (11th cent.). Lexicographers: Abu Sulaiman Daud al-Fasi (end of the 10th cent.) and his editors Abu Sa'id (probably identical with Levi ha-Levi, beginning of the 11th cent.) and 'Ali ibn Sulaiman; the first-named knows nothing as yet of the triliteral roots of the Hebrew language, and the last-named hardly uses the new system, although acquainted with ayyuj's works. As Hebrew grammarians, only the above-mentioned Yusuf ibn Nu and Abu al-Faraj Harun (called "the grammarian of Jerusalem" by Ibn Ezra) need be noted; the latter wrote first his "Kitab al-Mushtamil," a comprehensive work in seven parts, which also includes a large part of Hebrew lexicography, and then made a compendium," Kitab al-Kafi," so that (1026) Ibn Ezra mentions eight works. Codifiers (of Karaite religious law): Ya'ub al-irisani, in the third and fourth decades of the tenth century, whose "Kitab al-Anwar" may be considered as the most important Karaite work written in the Arabic language; Sahl (called "Ben Zita" by Ibn Ezra), whose code was entitled "Sefer Dinim," although written in Arabic; Yafith ibn 'Ali, known only through citations, and his son Levi ha-Levi, one of the most noteworthy codifiers, who often agrees with the Rabbinites; Yusuf al-Bair, author of the "Kitab al-Istibar," of which the "Sefer ha-Abib" and "Sefer ha-Mo'adim," mentioned by Pinsker, are subdivisions; Abu al-Faraj Furan, Sahl ibn Fal Tustari (called in Hebrew "Yashar b. esed"; end of the 11th cent.), and others.

Although the Oriental Karaite authors since Nahawendi wrote in Hebrew with more or less fluency, there were no noteworthy poets among them. The orthodox and ascetic views of the earlier Karaites did not encourage secular poetry, which was held to profane the holy language; nor did they produce anything noteworthy in liturgical poetry ("piyyuim"), for according to Anan, with the exception of short benedictions, prayers could be taken only from the Psalter (see specimens in Harkavy, "Studien und Mittheilungen," viii.). Even in later times they generally either borrowed Rabbinite poems or resorted to imitations of them. The only Karaite poet who left secular poems, Moses Dar'i (13th cent.), either imitated or simply borrowed from the Judæo-Spanish poets. It goes without saying that polemics against Rabbinism were obligatory upon every Karaite author in the period of propaganda and extension. The writers mentioned herein attacked the Rabbinites on every occasion and in almost all their works, and also wrote special polemical pamphlets, as Solomon ben Jeroham against Saadia Gaon, Sahl and Yafith against Saadia's pupil Jacob b. Samuel, Yusuf al-Bair against Samuel ibn ofni. Some Karaite writers may also be noted who are known only as polemicists, as Ibn Mashia and Ibn Sakawaihi; some details have recently been discovered regarding the latter's "Kitab al-Faa'i" (Book of Infamies), which was refuted by Saadia.


In formulating the principles of primitive Karaism concerning the doctrine of the Law the leaders of the sect generally followed Mohammedan patterns. Anan, as has been seen, was influenced by Abu anifah, and added to the three sources of Islamic law—the Koran, the "sunnah" (tradition), and "ijma'" (the agreement of all Islam)—a fourth source, namely, "ra'y," i.e., speculation, or the speculative opinions of the teachers of the Law and of the judges, which are deduced by analogy ("iyas"; Talmud, "heḳḳesh") from the laws originating in the other three sources. Anan, opposed on principle to Rabbinism, could not recognize tradition as a source of law, nor could he, the founder of a new sect, consider agreement as a basis for religious law; hence he found it all the more necessary to seize upon analogical speculation. But he introduced two important modifications, based on rabbinical precedent, into the principle of Abu anifah: (1) instead of logical analogy, of chief importance with Abu anifah, Anan gave preference to verbal analogy (the rabbinical "gezerah shawah"), and frequently even resorted to literal analogy; (2) for the religious laws which he based on his speculations he endeavored to deduce support from the Biblical text: he did not hesitate at the most forced interpretations, but followed rabbis who made deductions("asmakta") in support of ancient traditions. Hence this heresiarch believed himself justified in asserting that he took all his teachings directly from the Bible. Later, however, when Ananism with its opposition to traditional Judaism and its artificial system was gradually disappearing, and Karaism was so well established that it need hesitate no longer to call things by their right names, the Karaite leaders adopted openly the Mohammedan principles concerning canons of the Law. Thus Sahl ben Malia, according to Judah Hadassi, adopted outright Abu anifah's principles, with the single modification that instead of tradition he considered speculation and analogy as authoritative. Yusuf ibn Nu entirely rejected speculation, like the non-anifitic Mohammedan theological schools; Levi ha-Levi (probably the reading in Hadassi should be "Abu Sa'id" instead of "Sa'id"), again, agrees with Abu anifah, though of course excluding tradition. Abu al-Faraj Furan similarly determines three categories of the Law, which agree with Abu anifah's categories, exclusive of tradition. However, many Mohammedan faihs also have excluded tradition from the socalled roots of the doctrine of the Law ("uul al-fih"). Tradition was included among the nomocanons, under the curious designation "the inherited burden" ("sebel ha-yerushshah"), at a much later date, during the Byzantine epoch of Karaism.


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