Gerardus Kelleger GERARDUS PRESS
Read this first before using: Web side of see Gerardus press for details.
Notifications URGENT information
to read first, urgent
32495 converted by the media
The bible stories
32496 Aut Nihil
Aut Ceasar
32497 or just a simple flooding
Noah's ark
32498 The artificial created anti-Semitism
32499 proof later
Believing first
32500 or just faith.....
An addiction
32501 Bestowed upon us by God
The manner of love
32502 of all.....
The saviour
32503 Who is fooling who
The main question
32504 But who is doubtingh the creation
Some doubt
32505 will He return to us.....
2000 years ago
32506 The story of the Ukraine
Bandera the so admired killer in WW2 by the EU.
32507 With the devil on your side
Who can fail.....
32508 It grows.
Belief is like a tree
32509 I will presch........
Being the least of all saints
32510 The bibles answers
Who can.......
32511 Antique books.
Killing off a market
32512 A path for us.....
God has laid out
32513 You can move mountains.
If you belief
32514 without a church
Spreading the word
32515 On heaven and Earth
Praising the Lord
32516 or are they not?
Are they?
32517 Let us pray.....
When we say.....
32518 wrote those words?
Did Mordecai
32519 Without Jesus?
Would the Hebrew be known
32520 Any real proof of Jesus?
But is there any?
32521 a belief?
32522 Immunity
A system
32523 Revive thy work
Oh Lord
32524 What to do with him
A masn called Christ
32525 Spirits, deities and gods
first three pages
32526 Are the churches getting the hungry
To the table...
32527 Called Jesus.
What tyo do with a man
32528 The mediator
32529 Spirits, Deities, Gods
second part
32530 I should do.
What is it....
32531 It rules religion
32532 full of self control
See a man
32533 Spirits, Deitie, Gods
part four
32534 In the hand of God
We are sinners
32535 Are you?
Iam a Christian
32536 The microben
Human health
32537 Where is my strenght
Heavenly father
32538 Spirits, Deities, Gods
Part four
32539 He shall help us
Do not hesitate
32541 Microbal inflamation
Maladaption of the body
32542 of the feet
The washing.....
32543 Spitits, Deities, Gods
Part five
32544 from gopfor wood
Make yourself an ark
32545 What is life to you,
Our life,
32546 Use it well
Time is short,
32547 When old passes away
All becomes new
32548 Spirits, Deities, Gods
part Six
32549 His love will remove it.
32550 It stirs up your love
His love
32551 The holy spit works.
Through providence
32552 Hell for you.
Hell will be.....
32553 Spirits, Deities, Gods
part seven
32554 Rejoice.......
All the people......
32555 The killing of Floyd
The previous history of
32556 Language
streken Frysk
32557 Karaites
The story
32558 God
The concurend
32559 Atheist
Part two
32560 McCarthyism
A look in the past
32561 a view of God
The Western countries
32562 It's burning
The Negev....
32563 Anti-Semitism
The misuse
32564 The Karaites
Part 2
32565 Is Britian changing
Is it really?
32566 Part 3
The Karaites
32567 Britain
Slowly changing
32568 Sliding back?
The 30tier years
32569 Part 4
The Karaites
32570 non-Jews included
32571 in the past.
Back to the future
32572 Part 5
The karaites
32573 Or hit him with the sword
Shall I beat him with a whip
32574 Follow the first reason
To follow the rest

32525 Spirits, deities and gods

In 7 parts, the first 21 pages of the just finished book, Out 09/2020

                     Spirits, Deities, Gods.


                        PART ONE



Had the world at one time no spirits, deities, gods? Yes , most likely

By the time our planet was four billion years old, the rise of large plants and animals was just beginning. Complexity exploded around that time, as the combination of multi-cellularity, sexual reproduction, and other genetic advances brought about the Cambrian explosion. Many evolutionary changes occurred over the next 500 million years, with extinction events and selection pressures paving the way for new forms of life to arise and develop.

65 million years ago, a catastrophic asteroid strike wiped out not only the dinosaurs, but practically every animal weighing over 25 kg (excepting leatherback sea turtles and some crocodiles). This was Earth's most recent great mass extinction, and left a large number of niches unfilled in its wake. Mammals rose to prominence in the aftermath, with the first humans arising less than 1 million years ago. 65 million years ago, a massive asteroid somewhere between 5 and 10 kilometres in diameter struck our planet.

It kicked up a layer of dust that settled all over the world, a layer that can be found today in our planet's sedimentary rock. On the older side of that layer, fossils such as dinosaurs, pterosaurs, ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs are abundant. Giant reptiles, ammonites, and large classes of plants and animals all existed prior to that event, along with small, flying birds and the tiny, land-dwelling mammals.

After that event, the mammals survived. With no larger predators to stop them, they grew, diversified, and experienced a population explosion. Primates, rodents, lagomorphs, and other forms of mammals, including placental mammals, marsupials, and even the egg-laying mammals are all abundant at the start of the Cenezoic epoch.

They split into two groups. The dry-nosed primates, known formally as the haplorrhines, which developed into modern monkeys and apes. The wet-nosed primates, known as the strepsirrhines, which developed into modern lemurs and aye-ayes.

58 million years ago, another big change occurred: the haplorrhines experienced an interesting genetic split, as the first novel and unique evolutionary branch became distinct from the rest of the dry-nosed primates: the tarsier. With its enormous eyes, it was uniquely well-adapted to see at night. They were sufficiently different from the remaining groups of our ancestors that they evolved differently from the rest of their cousins from this point onwards. This type of evolutionary splitting occurs every so often, and isn't unique to primates.

Although we normally don't think very much about our distant cousins and how they develop once they've split off from us, it isn't just haplorrhines like us (and our direct ancestors) that underwent interesting phases of evolution. All throughout the past 65 million years — just as it was before that time — the various mammals, birds, plants, and other living organisms evolved together. Evolution is driven by environmental changes, and that includes all the floral and faunal changes that occur on our planet. The sudden rise 55 million years ago sudden saw rise in greenhouse gases causes the global average temperature to swiftly rise, wiping out many deep-ocean animals and plants. This transformation left many large, unfilled niches in the ocean, paving the way for cetaceans (the large oceanic mammals) to develop.

50 million years ago, some of the even-toed mammals begin evolving into sea-dwelling creatures. The artiodactyls may have all evolved from a single, common ancestor, or may have evolved independently. Animals like Indohyus, which dates to 48 million years ago, may have given rise to protocetids: shallow-water mammals that returned to land to give birth. 47 million years ago, the primate Darwinius masillae existed, as the fossil Ida, preserved from that time, provides a spectacular example. Although this was originally touted as a proverbial "missing link" in human evolution, Ida is not a haplorrhine like us, but a strepsirrhene: a wet-nosed primate.

But another 7 million years later — 40 million years ago — an important development occurred among the dry-nosed primates: the New World monkeys branched off. Humans and our ape ancestors are descended from Old World monkeys; New World monkeys are the first simians (or higher primates) to evolutionary diverge from our lineage. They would go on to colonize most of South America, where they are still found in abundance today. The Old World monkeys continue to thrive and successfully occupy their niches, while diversifying in body size and physical features. 25 million years ago, the first apes arise, splitting off from the remaining Old World monkeys at this time. The apes — defined by the complete lack of a tail of any type — would go on to give rise to many of the close relatives of humans that survive today: both the lesser apes and the great apes.

The earliest ape to split off from the Old World monkeys was the Gibbon, a lesser ape that first arose 18 million years ago. Sometime between 14 and 16 million years ago, the first great apes arose, with Orang-utans branching off 14 million years ago. The Orang-utans spread into southern Asia after this, while the other great apes remained in Africa. The largest primate ever, Gigantopithecus, first arose some 9 million years ago, only becoming extinct a few hundred thousand years ago. 7 million years ago, gorillas branched off from the other great apes; they remain the largest of all the surviving primates.

The great apes split off in two directions 6 million years ago, with one direction giving rise to humanity's ancestors and the other branch giving rise to chimpanzees and bonobos. The chimpanzee/bonobo branch remains unified for another 4 million years, with our closest surviving relatives — the chimpanzees and bonobos — diverging from one another a mere 2 million years ago. 5.6 million years ago, the first truly bipedal ape, Ardipithecus, arose. Although it's a controversial claim, the hand bones in Ardipithecus show evidence of it being a transitional fossil between the earlier great apes and the later Australopithecines.

Approximately 4 million years ago, the first Australopithecus evolved: the first members of the Hominina subtribe (a taxonomic classification more specific than family but less specific than genus). Shortly thereafter, the first evidence of stone tool use appears: presently at 3.4-to-3.7 million years ago.The critical evolutionary step happened a little more than 2 million years ago, as our hominid ancestors faced food shortages. One evolutionarily successful approach was to develop stronger jaws, which gave us the capability to eat foods (like nuts) that were otherwise inaccessible. But another approach was also successful: to develop weaker jaws and larger brains, enabling us to access the food.

While both groups survived for a time, the larger-brained group was more adaptable to changes, and they continued to survive. This is the evolutionary path that we think led to the development of the genus Homo, which first arose about 2.5 million years ago. Homo habilis, known colloquially as "handy man," had larger brains than their Australopithecus counterparts and displayed far more widespread tool use.

About 1.9 million years ago, Homo erectus evolved. This human ancestor not only walked fully upright, but had much larger brains than Homo habilis: nearly twice as large, on average. Homo erectus became the first direct human ancestor to leave Africa, and the first to display evidence of using fire. Homo habilis was likely driven to extinction more than a million years ago, as was the last Australopithecus.









Text-only version of this page  |  Edit this page  |  Manage website  |  Website design: